Knowledge Center: M
An alphabetical glossary of terms related to Laird's embedded wireless modules.
M.2 Form Factor (also known as NGFF, or Next Generation Form Factor) is a physical hardware specification designed to supercede the mSATA specification. The M.2 form factor exposes several buses through the connector, making it highly versatile and useful for many different purposes.
A Media Access Control (MAC) address is the hardware address (unique numeric identifier) of a device connected to a network. The MAC address helps other devices on the network find each other and it accompanies each data packet in order to identify the sender.
SCU displays the MAC address for both the station radio and the AP radio.
The Main window provides an overview of the current wireless network connection configuration (Active Profile), a snapshot of connection information as well as access to administrator functions (Admin Login/Logout - administrator use only), and additional information regarding SCU (About SCU).
The SCU Main window displays the following parameters:
Note: This window is only available in SCU versions prior to v4.0.
Man in the Middle, or MITM, is a form of active eavesdropping where communication between two users (the victims) is monitored and modified by an unauthorized party (the attacker). During an MITM attack, the original parties appear to communicate normally. The sender does not realize that the receiver is an unknown attacker who is trying to access or modify the message before retransmitting it to the original receiver. The attacker controls the entire communication.
Maximum (Max PSP) is a power save mode where the access point buffers incoming messages for the radio. The radio occasionally 'wakes up' to determine if any buffered messages are waiting and then returns to sleep mode after it requests each message. This setting conserves the most power but also provides the lowest throughput. It is recommended for radios in which power consumption is most important (such as small battery-operated devices).
Linux driver used for interacting with various flash device.
Made for iPhone/iPad/iPod. Apple's licensing program for third party manufacturers which offers certification for products designed to connect with Apple devices.
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) (formerly TELEC) is the standards body for Japan. For more information: http://www.telec.or.jp/eng/Index_e.htm
For MIC certifications, all approvals and certifications must exist at the device level, rather than the radio module level. Device vendors may leverage Summit's certifications and the associated test report when applying for MIC certifications.
A mobile device is a transmitting device designed for fixed locations and typically transmits at least 20 cm from the human body. In this context, "fixed location" indicates that the device, including its antenna, is physically secured at one location and cannot be easily moved to another location. A vehicle-mounted device is an example of a mobile device.
Transmitting devices that can be easily re-located (such as wireless devices associated with a personal computer) may be considered mobile devices if they meet the 20 cm separation requirement.
FCC rules allow vendors to use current FCC grants for their mobile devices without additional testing or certification only if the following conditions are met:
Modular approvals apply to non-stand-alone products (devices that are designed for use in other end products). This type of certification enables a manufacturer to incorporate an approved module into a product without having to retest or recertify the module.
Note: FCC and IC approvals do not allow the use of modular approvals with collocated radios nor with portable devices.
There are eight items that must be met in order for a device to qualify for an FCC (FCC standard 15.247 for intentional radiation) modular approval:
If a device does not have all eight items, it may still be possible to do a Limited Modular Approval.
Audio system where all audio signals are sent together over one channel. Applications include VoIP phones and gateways, intercom systems, vehicle hands-free kits, first responder audio intercoms, and industrial audible alarm systems.
MSB, or most significant bit, is the highest bit in a series of numbers and is located at the far left of the string. For example, in the following number, 2 is the MSB: 2014
A type of antenna which consists of a single conducting rod that is mounted to a conductive surface. The rod acts as one half of a dipole and the conducting surface creates the other.
Multipath propagation occurs when a single radio transmission encounters a reflective material (such as metal) and then duplicates into multiple transmissions in the same way that a sound wave can echo when it encounters reflective objects. Multipath propagation typically reduces the performance of 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g- compliant devices that support only single spatial streams because duplicate transmissions can be perceived by the receiving radio as original transmissions (which must be processed and subsequently discarded).
The ability of a radio to discern multiple transmissions as duplicates is referred to as delay spread which is typically quantified in nanoseconds (the period of time during which a duplicate will be ignored and not processed). 802.11n-compliant devices that support multiple spatial streams are capable of transmitting and receiving multiple transmissions simultaneously. As a result, 802.11n-compliant devices can achieve greater performance and reliability than legacy single-stream devices by leveraging multiple transmission paths.
The Music Manager is a Windows based application that allows you to configure and monitor A2DP post processing algorithms. The Music Manager is available with the appropriate version of a Headset Application Development Kit (ADK).