Command mode parameters and settings for modems and many wireless radios are stored in memory locations known as S Registers. They are labeled as S0, S1, S2, and so on. When a modem or radio is in Command Mode, AT commands may rewrite the data values stored in S Registers to change connection parameters.
A detailed list of the definitions for Summit and Laird radios' S registers may be found in the User's Guide for that radio.
From the SCU Diags window, Save To...allows you to indicate where you want to save the diagnostics file. Tap Save To...to open the Save As window. From here, you can change the SDC diagnostics file name, the folder in which SCU saves the file, the format in which the file is saved (the file type), and the location of the saved file (Main memory or System).
When a Wi-Fi station device initializes, it must find an available access point for a connection. When the connection that access point becomes tenuous, it must find a different access point that offers a better connection. The process of searching for an access point is referred to as scanning. There are two types of scanning:
An access point responds to a probe request within 20 milliseconds (ms), whereas an access point may take 100 ms or longer to issue a beacon. Because a station spends less time on each channel waiting for information from an access point, active scanning is more efficient than passive scanning.
Note: The number of access points identified during a scan and reported in the scan list found on the Profile Tab of the Summit Client Utility may vary due to a number of factors including interference in the environment, the type of microprocessor found on the host device and the priority the host device operating system affords the Summit device driver relative to other device drivers.
While doing active or passive scanning, a station device is incapable of sending and receiving "payload"data. Because of this, long scans have a negative impact on applications that require a persistent network connection. Devices that require high network availability should use Wi-Fi radios that allow scan times to be minimized.
In the 5 GHz band, DFS channels require passive scanning, because a station device may not issue a probe request or any other transmission on a DFS channel unless instructed by an infrastructure device that the channel is free from radar. Given that a passive scan may take hundreds of milliseconds per DFS channel, the use of DFS channels for highly mobile devices is discouraged, especially in the FCC and ETSI regulatory domains where there are 15 DFS channels.
Note: By default, dual-band Wi-Fi radios from Summit radios turn off scanning on DFS channels.
SCU (Summit Client Utility) is a connection management and monitoring utility that allows you to view all radio and security settings, and status; and enables you to troubleshoot connectivity issues.
For more information on SCU, refer to the SCU End User's Guide accessible from the documentation page.
A pairing protocol introduced in the Bluetooth 2.1+EDR release that increases security of Bluetooth pairing while making the pairing process more user-friendly. There are several modes of operation for SSP, such as Numeric Comparison which displays matching pin codes on both devices to assure users that the correct devices are being paired. Additonally, Just Works mode allows devices to pair with no verifcation from a user for optimal simplicity.
SCU values for the two primary security attributes, EAP type and encryption type, are displayed in separate drop-down lists with the current values highlighted. They can be modified in the Profile tab.
Note:Summit radios support two special access point settings:
When running Migration Mode (which is Static WEP and WPA-PSK), a client using PSK fails to obtain an IP address (and therefore can't pass traffic). The issue may arise if the user is running both Migration Mode and Mixed Mode (Static WEP/WPA-PSK/WPA2-PSK).
A Bluetooth profile dedicated to emulating serial port communication between two Bluetooth devices. In the profile, two roles are defined: Device A and Device B. Device A is the initiating device, and Device B is the device that awaits connection from Device A. When using this profile, the devices behave as though connected by serial port.
For the purpose of troubleshooting hardware, a shunt resistor is a small circuit that can be placed between two points of another circuit to measure the current passing through those points. By measuring the voltage drop across the shunt, the current can be calculated.
A measure of the clarity of a radio's signal. Signal quality is determined by the number of beacons received versus the number of beacons expected over a set period of time.
In SCU, Signal Quality displays on the Status tab.
The Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) is an arithmetic expression of the difference between the strength of a transmission (the signal) and the aggregate ambient noise (the noise floor). For example, if a signal is measured to be -50 dBm and the noise floor is measured to be -90 dBm, the SNR is understood to be 40 dBm (note that SNR is not so much a true ratio as it is a simple arithmetic difference). The greater the SNR, the greater degree to which a signal may be manipulated to support higher data rates and throughput. When the SNR reaches zero, a signal cannot be detected and a connection cannot be established or maintained.
Note: For Summit 30 Series radios, the RSSI value displayed on the Status tab of the Summit Client Utility (SCU) takes into account the noise floor and so displays the SNR or the RSSI relative to the noise floor. For the Summit 10,15, and 20 Series radios noise is not taken into account and an absolute RSSI is displayed. Therefore, the RSSI reported in SCU and compred to the Roam Trigger will be lower with the 30 Series than with the 10,15,and 20 Series. Other parameters related to scanning and roaming, such as Roam Delta, behave similarily for different radios under like conditions.
To measure hop timing using a 79 channel hopping algorithm, follow these steps:
This process provides the timing of a single hop.
To measure the number of hops on a single channel during full pseudo-random hopping, follow these steps:
This indicates the total time that the device is on one channel within the specified observation time. The total must be fewer than 0.4 seconds.
One of the two roles in an audio device as defined by the A2DP Bluetooth profile. A device is the SNK when it receives the digital audio stream that is delivered from the source (SRC). For example, an in-car media player.
SmartBASIC is an event-driven programming language that enables standalone operation of the module that uses handlers to react to events. A simple smartBASIC application encapsulates the complete end-to-end process of reading, writing and processing of sensor data as well as advertising, connecting, security, power management, and wireless status. SmartBASIC programs may then use BLE to transfer it to any Bluetooth v4.0 device - smartphone, tablet, gateway, or computer.
The Summit Manufacturing Utility (SMU) enables OEMs (device manufacturers) to set key radio parameters such as transmit power to compensate for antenna gain and channel set to maintain compliance with regulatory domain requirements.
A power-saving mode of operation for Bluetooth devices. In Sniff Mode, a device checks in preconfigured intervals for incoming data. The dormant periods are spent in a low-power state, allowing the device to save power when not transmitting. The Attempt, Timeout, and Max/Min Sniff intervals are configurable via AT commands and command scripts.
An extension of Sniff mode introduced in Bluetooth 2.1 +EDR that allows extension of Sniff mode features. The Sniff Sub-Rating parameter allows the Sniff interval (sleep period) of a device to increase by factors after a defined period of inactivity. This is useful for certain devices (like a computer mouse) that may engage in a brief period of activity and then sit dormant for a long period.
Software as a Service (SaaS), sometimes referred to as "on-demand software", is a software delivery method that stores and maintains all software and its associated data on the cloud. In general, SaaS is used by users using a thin client via web browser.
One of the two roles of an audio device as defined by the A2DP Bluetooth profile. A device is the SRC when it is the source of the digital audio stream that is sent to the SNK. For example, a portable navigation device (PND).
Spatial isolation is the notion of placing co-located Bluetooth and Wi-Fi radios (and their associated antennas) as far apart from each other as possible and, when possible, placing insulating material between them. Spatial isolation alone is rarely sufficient to achieve acceptable Bluetooth and Wi-Fi performance and is commonly employed in conjunction with other coexistence schemes. Spatial isolation is impossible with the latest generation of combination Bluetooth/Wi-Fi chips and modules.
The Summit Regulatory Utility (SRU) assists OEMs (device manufacturers) with regulatory certification processes. SRU allows for radio operation in continuous transmit, continuous receive, and continuous wave frequency (non-modulated) modes which are typically required during the regulatory certification testing process.
Service Set Identifier. Unique name of up to 32 characters that identifies a particular 802.11 WLAN.
The SSID is attached to the header of packets that are sent over a wireless network.
From the SCU Diags window, Start Ping/Stop Ping allows you to start a continuous ping to the address in the edit box next to the button. Once the button is tapped, its name and function changes to Stop Ping. Pings continue until you tap Stop Ping, move to a different SCU window (other than Diags or Status), exit SCU, or remove the radio.
Note: If your device has both a Summit radio and another network adapter active, then pings may go out over the non-Summit network adapter.
Note: The access point's IP address is the default for a ping although any valid IP address can be manually entered.
When connections are made between systems, their connections are either stateful or stateless.
When the connected devices retain information about each other after the connection, and that information is kept for use in a later connection, this is known as a stateful connection. Human conversations are somewhat analogous to stateful connections. For example, If Person 1 tells Person 2 that his child has a cold, upon their next meeting Person 2 may ask how Person 1's child has been feeling lately. A connection is made, information is retained, and the information is used in the next connection.
In a stateless connection, however, neither party retains information after a connection is made and dropped. The bulk of the internet's basic protocols, like IP and HTTP, operate as stateless connections. Through extensions like browser cookies and other additional software, these stateless protocols may achieve stateful connections.
A WLAN-enabled client device or radio.
Status is an SCU parameter that indicates the current status of the Summit radio. Connection statuses include:
The radio is not recognized by Summit software and therefore is not associated nor authenticated.
The radio is disabled. To enable the radio, tap Enable Radio located on the SCU Main window.
When the radio is disabled, it does not attempt to make a connection to an access point.
The radio has not established a connection to an access point.
The radio has established a connection to an access point but is not EAP authenticated. The radio can not communicate unless it is associated and EAP authenticated.
Note: If the Encryption type is set to WEP or Open (None), it can communicate (send data) while in the Associated state.
EAP type Authenticated
The radio has established a connection to an access point and has completed EAP authentication successfully. In this state, the radio can communicate (send data).
The SCU Status window provides status information on the radio connection between the station and the access point to which it's associated.
In SCU versions prior to version 4.0, the following parameters are displayed on the Status tab of the Summit Client Utility:
Audio system with two separate audio signal channels which are used to replicate the exact sound of the original noise when passed through an appropriate audio receiver. Applications include smartphone speaker docs, wireless hi-fi audio systems, automotive multimedia devices, and stereo headsets.
Controls the width of the last bit before the stop bit occurs in a transmission.
SBC, or Low Complexity Sub-band Coding, is a digital audio encoder and decoder for Bluetooth that supports both mono and stereo channels. It transfers data to Bluetooth-enabled audio output devices (like headphones or loudspeakers) and is the default codec for Bluetooth audio because its use is mandatory for many supplementary profiles. It is to be used with the Advanced Audio Distribution Profile (A2DP).
In order to better serve our customers, Laird Technologies makes available multiple versions of the same core product. These versions typically provide for alternative physical interfaces and/or multiple antenna options. In all cases, the radio performance of the various versions is identical to the radio performance of the core product.
As such, and where applicable, Laird uses the certifications, grants, approvals, and other related items of the core product for the various versions of that core product.
The following table describes each originally-certified Laird device and the devices that fall under these certifications.
802.11a/g Compact Flash Module with Antenna Connectors
Certifications for the SDC-CF10AG apply to the following devices:
802.11g Compact Flash Module with Antenna Connectors
Certifications for the SDC-CF10G apply to the following devices:
802.11a/g Mini Compact Flash Module with Antenna Connectors
Certifications for the SDC-MCF10AG apply to the following device:
802.11g Mini Compact Flash Module with Antenna Connectors
Certifications for the SDC-MCF10G apply to the following device:
802.11a/g Mini SDIO Module with Antenna Connectors
Certifications for the SDC-MSD30AG apply to the following device:
802.11n PCI Express Mini Card with Antenna Connectors
Certifications for the SDC-PE15N apply to the following devices:
A supplicant is a user (client) making a request to gain access to system resources through the authentication server.
A symbolic link is a file which acts as a shortcut or stand-in for another file, linking the two. A symbolic link is created through a computer's operating system, and acts as a stand-in file path for the target path that it is linked to. For example, the path for C:/folder/folder2/folder3/folder4/folder5/program.exe can be joined to a symbolic link at C:/programlink. Symbolic links are useful in that they can behave as shortcuts to other locations. They are supported in Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows Vista/7.
A process by which collocated servers can become in tune with one another and avoid each other's presence when frequency hopping, thus eliminating overlap and minimizing the chance for interference.
A Bluetooth protocol that is used as a radio link for voice data.
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