ews-blog-button  ews-blog-button  White Papers   ews-knowledgecenter-button  ews webinar button  ews-techsupport-button  Application Areas - Embedded Wireless Solutions 

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

123 and Symbols


           

 

Access Point (AP)

A hardware device that wirelessly connects network devices (computers) to a WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network).

Related Topics: 

 


 

Active Profile

Active Profile is an SCU Main window parameter that displays the name of the SCU active profile.

Note: If ThirdPartyConfig is selected (and after the device goes through a power cycle), WZC (Windows Zero Configuration) or another application is used to configure the SSID, Auth Type, EAP Type, and Encryption settings.

Note: When you use the drop-down menu to switch to a new active profile, a registry flush occurs of the entire Configs key as well as subkeys for the previous active profile.

 


 

Ad Hoc Channel (SCU Global Setting)

Ad Hoc Channel is an SCU Global setting that indicates the channel to be used for an ad hoc connection if the active profile has a Radio Mode value of Ad Hoc. Ad Hoc Channel options include:

  • One of the 2.4 GHz channels (1-14)
  • One of the UNII-1 channels (36, 40, 44, 48)

Note: If you select a channel that is not supported by your radio, then SCU uses the default channel setting (1) for this setting.

 


 

Ad Hoc Mode

Rather than Infrastructure mode, some applications (such as a sales demonstration) call for direct station-to-station communication. This is referred to as an ad hoc network. In ad hoc mode, the station associates directly to another station (radio) that is also in ad hoc mode and has the same SSID and, if configured, static WEP key.

Ad hoc networks are supported in Laird's Wi-Fi software from version 2.0 and later. To use an ad hoc network, set the radio mode of the profile to 'Ad Hoc' in the SCU profile tab. With ad hoc networks, you may use a WEP key or unsecured network (no encryption and no EAP types).

Related Topics: 

 


 

 Accessory Development Kit (ADK)

Accessory Developing Kit for Android devices.

 

 


 

Advanced Audio Codec (AAC)

A standardized encoder for digital audio. It is the default audio format for many audio-enabled devices and web players, such as Apple products and YouTube. 

 


 

Admin Passwords

Admin Password is an SCU Global setting that indicates the password that must be specified when the Admin Login button is tapped.

  • Value: A string of up to 64 characters.
  • Default: SUMMIT (case sensitive)

Note: SCU Admin use only. For more information, see the Wi-Fi Software Administrator's Guide.

 


 

Admin Login/Logout

Admin Passwords is an SCU Main window feature that allows an individual to access additional SCU functions and configurations by logging in as an administrator.

Note: The Summit Client Utility (SCU), by default, restricts the ability to make configuration changes.

To log in as an administrator, tap Admin Login and enter the administrator password in the dialog box. The default password is SUMMIT (case-sensitive). Tap Admin Logout to log out as an administrator, leaving access to end-user functions only.

Note: The administrator password can be changed through the Admin Password function on the Global window. The password can be a string of up to 64 characters.

By default, SCU does not hide passwords. Passwords may be hidden by selecting Hide Passwords found in the SCU Global Settings tab.

Note: SCU Admin use only. For more information, see the Wi-Fi Software Administrator's Guide.

 


 

AES-CCMP

AES-CCMP is the encryption method defined with IEEE 802.11i and certified with WPA2. Stronger than RC4 (which is used with both WEP and TKIP), AES-CCMP is considered sufficient for FIPS 140-2.

  • AES - Advanced Encryption Standard
  • CCMP - Counter Mode CBC-MAC Protocol

 


 

Aggressive Scan (SCU Global Setting)

Aggressive Scan is an SCU Global setting. When this setting is On and the current connection to an access point becomes tenuous, the radio scans for available access points more aggressively. Aggressive scanning complements and works in conjunction with the standard scanning that is configured through the Roam Trigger, Roam Delta , and Roam Period settings. Laird recommends that the Aggressive Scan global setting be On unless there is significant co-channel interference because of overlapping coverage from access points that are on the same channel.

 


 

Antenna Diversity

Antenna diversity is a radio design technique used to lessen the effects of multipath propagation on radio performance. In a diversity antenna system, multiple antennas (typically two) are placed in separate locations, ideally one wavelength apart.   For 2.4 GHz operation, this would be 12.5 cm (4.9") apart; for5 GHz operation, this would be 6 cm (2.3") apart. With this separation, one of the two antennas is relatively well-placed to receive transmissions as they arrive on different paths. Lesser antenna separation (as little as a quarter wavelength apart) still provide benefit, although to a lesser degree.

Systems that support receive diversity sample the preamble of a packet sent by a transmitting station on both antennas to establish which of the two has the strongest signal. The radio then receives the remainder of the transmission on that antenna. Systems that support transmit diversity transmit to a given station on the antenna that was last used to receive a transmission from that station.

 


 

Antenna Gain

A measure used to compare a radio antenna's power with that of an omnidirectional antenna. Typically expressed in decibels (dB), the gain, unless specified otherwise, refers to the direction of maximum radiation.

 


 

Antenna Pattern

The antenna pattern is a representation of the three-dimensional path of radiation leaving or arriving at an antenna. A directional antenna's pattern can generally be described across two dimensions of three dimensional space, since the direction the antenna is pointed can be thought of as a constant. Understanding the antenna pattern is critical to optimizing performance in the deployment environment. Different types of antennas create different patterns of radiation, so the best antenna for any scenario is dependent upon the connectivity needs of that environment.

 


 

Antenna Pattern Lobe

When viewing a cross section of an antenna pattern, lobes are outliers where the antenna's range is distinctly larger than the surrounding areas. Lobes can create connectivity where it is not intended, so understanding the antenna pattern and pattern lobes is important to building an effective network topology.

 


 

Application Program Interface (API)

An interface used by software components that allows them to communicate with other software components.

 


 

AP IP Address

The AP IP Address only displays if using a Cisco AP and CCX.

 


 

AP Name

The name assigned to the access point. The AP name is only available for Cisco APs and CCX.

Related Topics: 

 


 

 Array (Data Type)

In SMARTbasic, a variable may store multiple values in several slot positions, and may retrieve or manipulate the value stored in one or multiple slots. This is known as an array. In SMARTbasic, only single-dimensional arrays may be stored (one row) as opposed to the multi-row matrices common to other programming languages.

 
 


  

ASD

 

Application Specific Device - An 802.11 device, either an AP or a client station which can NOT be tested under a standard test plan.

Related Topics: 

 


Asynchronous Connectionless (ACL)

Asynchronous Connectionless Link protocol is a communications protocol which transmits user data and connection data between a local and remote Bluetooth device. It is responsible for managing flow control between the devices by dividing access time between devices intelligently. This improves throughput by allowing devices to send data when needed instead of waiting for their arbitrary turn, a process achieved by polling the connected devices.

The ACL protocol is divided into ACL-C (the connection management link) and the ACL-U (user data, L2CAP, error detection) link.


 

AT Command

The protocol used to call operations in most dial-up modems and many wireless transceivers (intented to get their ATtention. AT commands are features of the Hayes command set and are widely used in the operation of such devices.

Related Topics 

 


 

ATT

Layer of the Bluetooth controller stack that allows a connected client device to read and/or write a specific data type known as an "attribute." In Bluetooth Low Energy operation, a device can share status information with a server over long periods of time while using minimal power. ATT and the Bluetooth Low Energy schema are features of Bluetooth 4.0.

 


 

Authentication

The process of verifying the identity of:

  • A station attempting to gain access to a network.
  • A network to which a station is trying to gain access.

IEEE 802.1X, which is the authentication component of WPA and WPA2, performs mutual authentication through an Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) type. With mutual authentication, the network authenticates the station and the station authenticates the network.

 


 

Auth Server (SCU Global Setting)

Auth Server is an SCU Global setting that indicates the type of authentication server being used for EAP. Auth Server options include:

  • Type 1 - Cisco Secure ACS or another server that uses PEAPv1 for PEAP with EAP-MSCHAPV2 (PEAP-MSCHAP).
  • Type 2 - A different authentication server, such as Juniper Networks Steel Belted RADIUS, that uses PEAPv0 for PEAP-MSCHAP.

IEEE 802.1X, which is the authentication component of WPA and WPA2, performs mutual authentication through an Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) type. With mutual authentication, the network authenticates the station and the station authenticates the network.

 


 

Auth Timeout (SCU Global Setting)

Auth Timout is an SCU Global setting that specifies the number of seconds (from 3 to 60) that Laird Wi-Fi software waits for an EAP authentication request to succeed or fail. If authentication credentials are specified in the active profile and the authentication times out, then association will fail. If authentication credentials are not specified in the active profile and the authentication times out, then the user is re-prompted to enter authentication credentials.

The default Auth Timeout value is 8 seconds.

 


 

Auth Type

Auth Type indicates the 802.11 authentication type used when associating to an access point. SCU authentication type parameters include:

  • Open - This two-step authentication type involves the station sending a request (usually a randomly generated key) to the access point. The access point sends an authentication response that contains a success or failure message. Once accepted, the key is only used for a short period of time; then a new key is generated and agreed upon.
  • Shared (Shared-key) - With a shared authentication type, both the station and the access point have the same "shared" key or passphrase.
  • EAP (Network-EAP)

 

Note: Click here for a Cisco explanation of 802.11 authentication using Open and Network-EAP. The Summit Client Utility refers to Network-EAP as LEAP.

Note: Laird highly recommends the use of Open which is also the SCU default. This setting can be edited from the Profile window of SCU.

 


 

Auto Profile

A profile is a set of parameters that define the manner in which a station associates to a wireless LAN (WLAN) infrastructure. A profile contains information including the System Set Identifier (SSID or the "name" of the WLAN infrastructure), means of data encryption, authentication type, and security credentials. A station device that operates with more than one WLAN infrastructure (perhaps in different buildings) tends to have more than one profile.

With Auto Profile Selection (Auto Profile), SCU selects the profile automatically.

When Auto Profile is activated and the Laird radio makes its first attempt to associate to an access point (after a device startup or resume), SCU tries each profile, in order, until the radio associates to an access point. The successful profile becomes the active profile and remains active until one of the following occurs:

  • The device is suspended and resumed, power-cycled, or restarted which causes the automatic profile selection process to restart.
  • You turn off Automatic Profile and manually select a different profile on the SCU Main window.

Note: There is a limit of 19 profiles in the Auto Profile list.

Note: Auto profile is not available in versions prior to 2.01.17. It is also not available on Laird's SCU software that runs on Windows XP.

 


 

Azimuth

The name of the angle between north and the perpendicular projection of an object in space from the horizon, measured clockwise.

Example: Facing east, and using the moon as the object to be measured, the azimuth would be 90 degrees. Facing south, the azimuth would be 180 degrees and so on.

[Top]